Active Directory Migrations: New Hire Process

In our scenario we had to keep creating new hires in the legacy domain so that we could get sidHistory, until we can say that we’re done and all things have been migrated.

I did it all in one script, but it’s a little big. I like it cause I did some new (to me) stuff like menus and consolidation. It’s what I wanted to do with the rest of the migration scripts, but just didn’t quite work right. If you’re migrating 100 people at once, you want to verify that everything in step 1 has worked correctly before going on to step 2.

Below is the script. I’ll try to explain as we go, but most of it is just re-doing of things we’ve done before.

This script also assumes that you still have your daily sync scripts going from source to target domain and that you’re waiting at least a day between new hire creation in legacy and migration to target. If not, you’ll need to run the prepare-mailboxmove script manually to create the MEU

$warningpreference='silentlycontinue'

## Function to look in the source directory for all CSV files. Sort by most recent date and return the last 10.
## This way we can manipulate that file and use it for the rest of the script

function SourceFileMenu()

{
$sourceFiles = Get-ChildItem $sourcefolder\*.csv | Sort LastWriteTime -Descending | select name, lastwritetime -first 10
Write-Host ("=" * 80)
Write-Host "Available migration source files"
Write-Host ("-" * 80)

[int]$optionPrefix = 1

# Create menu list
foreach ($option in $sourceFiles)
{
if ($displayProperty -eq $null)
{
Write-Host ("{0,3}: {1,-40} {2}" -f $optionPrefix,$option.Name,$option.lastWriteTime)
}
else
{
Write-Host ("{0,3}: {1}" -f $optionPrefix,$option.$displayProperty)
}
$optionPrefix++
}

$maxOptions = $optionPrefix - 1

Write-Host ("-" * 80)
$response = 0
while($response -lt 1 -or $response -gt $sourcefiles.count)
{
[int]$response = Read-Host "Select a source file [1 - $maxOptions]"
}

$val = $null

if ($response -gt 0 -and $response -le $sourceFiles.Count)
{
$val = $sourceFiles[$response-1]
}

$pattern = [regex] "(.*)\.csv"

##save our selection into a variable and return it to the caller
$sourcename = $pattern.matches($val.Name) | foreach {$_.groups[1].value}

return $sourcename
}

##Pause function. Mainly so that the script will still work if you're using the ISE
Function Pause ($Message = "Press any key to continue . . . ") {
If ($psISE) {
# The "ReadKey" functionality is not supported in Windows PowerShell ISE.

$Shell = New-Object -ComObject "WScript.Shell"
$Button = $Shell.Popup("Click OK to continue.", 0, "Script Paused", 0)

Return
}
##ISE related stuff
Write-Host -NoNewline $Message

$Ignore =
16, # Shift (left or right)
17, # Ctrl (left or right)
18, # Alt (left or right)
20, # Caps lock
91, # Windows key (left)
92, # Windows key (right)
93, # Menu key
144, # Num lock
145, # Scroll lock
166, # Back
167, # Forward
168, # Refresh
169, # Stop
170, # Search
171, # Favorites
172, # Start/Home
173, # Mute
174, # Volume Down
175, # Volume Up
176, # Next Track
177, # Previous Track
178, # Stop Media
179, # Play
180, # Mail
181, # Select Media
182, # Application 1
183 # Application 2

While ($KeyInfo.VirtualKeyCode -Eq $Null -Or $Ignore -Contains $KeyInfo.VirtualKeyCode) {
$KeyInfo = $Host.UI.RawUI.ReadKey("NoEcho, IncludeKeyDown")
}

Write-Host
}

##Function for moving the objects to the correct OU
function CheckSite ($Site){
## Base OU where you have your users. This assumes you separate everything by region.
$BaseUserOU="domain.com/Users OU/"
switch ($Site){
"Site1 {
$OU="/CO"
$UserOU=$BaseUserOU + $OU
}
"Site2" {
$OU="/NC"
$UserOU=$BaseUserOU + $OU
}
"Site3 {
$ou="/MA"
$UserOU=$BaseUserOU + $OU
}

}

## Return the OU to the caller
return $userOU
}

## MainMenu builder
function mainMenu() {

Clear-Host;
#… Present the Menu Options
Write-Host “`n`New Hire Migration Process `n” -ForegroundColor Magenta
Write-Host “`t`tThese steps are in the order they need to be run.” -Fore Cyan
Write-Host “`t`tPlease run them sequentially and ensure each step finishes successfully” -Fore Cyan
Write-Host “`t`tbefore continuing on.`n” -Fore Cyan
Write-Host “`t`t`t1. Generate Include Files” -Fore Cyan
Write-Host “`t`t`t2. Enter Passwords” -Fore Cyan
write-host "`t`t`t3. Check for MEU" -fore cyan
Write-Host “`t`t`t4. ADMT” -Fore Cyan
Write-Host “`t`t`t5. Mailbox Move” -Fore Cyan
Write-Host "`t`t`t6. Set migrated attribute" -ForegroundColor Cyan
write-host "`t`t`t7. Set UPN and Displayname" -ForegroundColor Cyan
Write-Host "`t`t`t8. Disable Lync in source" -ForegroundColor Cyan
Write-Host "`t`t`t9. Enable Lync in target" -ForegroundColor Cyan
Write-Host "`t`t`t10. Set SIP in source -ForegroundColor Cyan
Write-Host "`t`t`t11. Move User to correct OU" -ForegroundColor Cyan
write-host "`t`t`t12. Clean up Files" -fore cyan
Write-Host “`t`t`tQ. for Quit`n” -Fore Cyan

}

##Variables. Add our snapin, decare paths, etc.
Add-PSSnapin Quest.ActiveRoles.ADManagement -erroraction SilentlyContinue
$Path="D:\newhire\includes"
$currfolder = Split-Path -parent $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition
$sourceFolder = $currfolder + "/Includes"

##Present the menu as a do/while, thus ensuring we only exit when we want
do {
## Call menu and store the keystroke into a var
mainMenu;
write-host "You last chose number " $input

$input = Read-Host "Enter a number for an option"

##Perform necessary option based on input
switch ($input) {
"1" { ## GEnerate include files for various scripts. renames the include file chosen to userincludes.csv and prepares the admt include
$IncludeFile=SourceFileMenu
$IFile=$includeFile + ".csv"
copy-item $sourcefolder\$IFile -destination $sourcefolder"\UserIncludes.csv"
$output=@()
import-csv $path\Userincludes.csv| ForEach-Object {
$obj = New-Object PSObject | Select-Object SourceName, TargetRDN, TargetUPN
$obj.SourceName = $_.sourceName
$obj.TargetRDN = $_.TargetRDN
$obj.TargetUPN = $_.TargetUPN
$output += $obj
}
write-host "...Generating Files..." -foregroundcolor red

$output|export-csv $path\"ADMTUserInclude.csv" -notypeinformation
Pause
}
"2" { ## Loads the parameter input. Prompts for credentials
write-host "Input target Creds" -backgroundcolor red -foregroundcolor white
$LocalCredentials=get-credential

write-host "Input source creds" -backgroundcolor red -foregroundcolor white
$RemoteCredentials=get-credential

$ImportFile="D:\newhire\includes\UserIncludes.csv"
$SourceDc="sourcedc1.sourcedomain.com"
$TargetDC="targetdc1.targetdomain.com"
$TargetDeliveryDomain="targetdomain.com"

$ExchURI="http://targetex1.targetdomain.com/powershell"
$LyncURI="https://registrarpool.targetdomain.com/ocspowershell"
$LyncFEURI="https://targetfe.targetdomain.com/ocspowershell"
$LyncFESourceURI="https://sourcefe.sourcedomain.com/ocspowershell"
$LyncURISource="https://sourcelyncdir.sourcedomain.com/ocspowershell"
$SourceDomain="sourcedomain.com"
$TargetDomain="targetdomain.com"
$RegistrarPool="registrarpool.targetdomain.com"
$TargetOU="Target/OU"
$import=import-csv $ImportFile

##Create Lync sessions for source and target
$LyncSessionSource=New-PSSession -connectionuri $LyncURISource -credential $RemoteCredentials
$LyncSession=New-PSSession -connectionuri $LyncURI -credential $LocalCredentials

write-host "Variables Loaded"
Pause
}
"3" { ##Check for existence of MEU. We can't do a migration if meu doesn't exist
foreach ($item in $Import){
write-host "Checking if user is enabled for UM in source " $item.smtp -foregroundcolor yellow

##check user attributes to see if they're enabled for UM. They shouldn't be, but just in case
$CheckUM=get-qaduser -service $SourceDC -identity $item.sourcename -includedProperties msExchUMRecipientDialPlanLink
$CheckDial=$checkUM.msExchUMRecipientDialPlanLink
if ($CheckDial){
write-host $item.smtp "is enabled for Unified Messaging. Please go disable and come back and rerun script" -fore yellow
$input="Q"
}
}
##Create Sessions
## Exchange sessions throw an error if it takes too long to get back to them, so we have to create and delete them as we go
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials

import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null

## Check if there's an MEU in target domain. If not, exit
foreach ($item in $import){
$aUser=get-mailuser $item.smtp
if (!$aUser){write-host "No MEU exists for " $item.smtp "please exit and run the Prepare script manually" -fore yellow
$input="Q"
}
if ($aUser){
##We've had some weird issues where the email address policy isn't applying immediately, so just in case let's go ahead and turn it off and back on for the users.
## We wait 30 seconds because otherwise the script goes too fast.
write-host "MEU Exists for " $item.smtp
write-host "Disabling EaP"
start-sleep -s 30
set-mailuser -identity $item.smtp -emailAddressPolicyenabled $false
write-host "enabling EAP"
start-sleep -s 30
set-mailuser -identity $item.smtp -emailaddresspolicyenabled $true
}
}
remove-pssession $Exchsession
pause
}
"4" { ## ADMT
## Can't be done via script because ADMT won't migrate the sid unless we have it installed on a DC or launch the GUI. Since that's the whole point we launch the GUI to do the ADMT
& C:\Windows\ADMT\migrator.msc
Pause
}
"5" { ## Mailbox Move
##Create Sessions
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials

import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null

foreach ($User in $import){
New-MoveRequest -Identity $user.smtp -domaincontroller $TargetDC -RemoteLegacy -RemoteGlobalCatalog $SourceDC -RemoteCredential $RemoteCredentials -TargetDeliveryDomain $TargetDeliveryDomain -baditemlimit 50 -warningaction silentlycontinue
}

## Rather than go check manually in exchange for move status, let's just do it all here. Wait 30 seconds between tries.
## Even with no data in the mailbox it still takes about 5 minutes to do the process
foreach ($User in $import){

do {
start-sleep -s 30
$a=get-moverequeststatistics -identity $user.smtp
clear-host
write-host "Getting move request statistics for " $user.smtp -fore yellow
write-host "`t`t`t " $a.status -fore cyan
}
until ($a.status -eq "Completed")
}
remove-pssession $ExchSession

Pause
}
"6" { ## Set attribute for reporting
foreach ($item in $Import){
write-host "Attribute being set for " $item.sourcename -foregroundcolor yellow
set-qaduser -service $SourceDC -identity $item.sourcename -objectAttributes @{"extensionattribute4"="MigratedToCorp"}
}
Pause
}
"7" { ## Set UPN and displayname, enable AS
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials

import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null
foreach ($item in $Import){
$UPN=$item.newupn+"@csgicorp.com"
$AS=$item.ActiveSync.ToUpper()
write-host "Setting UPN and AS for " $item.displayname -foregroundcolor yellow
set-user -identity $item.displayname -displayname $item.displayname -userprincipalname $UPN
if ($AS -eq "YES"){set-casmailbox -identity $item.smtp -activesyncenabled $true}
}
remove-pssession $ExchSession
Pause
}
"8" { ## Disable Lync in source
import-pssession $LyncSessionSource
foreach ($item in $import){
write-host "Disabling Lync for " $item.olddisplayname -foregroundcolor yellow
disable-csuser -identity $item.olddisplayname
}

remove-pssession $LyncSessionSource
## We add a delay otherwise it goes too fast
start-sleep 60
Pause
}
"9" { ## enable lync in target
import-pssession $LyncSession

foreach ($item in $import){
enable-csuser -identity $item.displayname -registrarpool $registrarpool -sipaddresstype EmailAddress
write-host "Enabling Lync for: " $item.displayname -foregroundcolor yellow
}
remove-pssession $LyncSession
pause
}
"10" { ##Set sip attribute in source
ForEach ($item in $import){
write-host "Adding source SIP for " $item.sourcename -foregroundcolor yellow
$NewSIP="sip:" + $item.smtp
set-qaduser -service $SourceDC -identity $item.sourcename -objectAttributes @{"msRTCSIP-PrimaryUserAddress"=$newsip}
}
pause
}
"11" { ##Move to OU
$date=get-date -format "yyyyMMdd"
foreach ($item in $import){
$return=CheckSite $item.sitecode
get-qaduser -service $targetDC -identity $item.displayname|move-qadobject -service $targetDC -identity {$_} -newparentcontainer $return
}
pause
}
"12" { ##Cleanup created files and move them to a completed dir
$date=get-date -format "yyyyMMdd"
move-item "$sourcefolder\ADMTUserInclude.csv" "$sourcefolder\Completed" -force
move-item "$sourcefolder\UserIncludes.csv" "$sourcefolder\Completed" -force
$ANewName=$date+"ADMTUserInclude.csv"
$UNewName=$date+"UserIncludes.csv"

if (!($(test-path "$sourcefolder\completed\$anewname"))){
rename-item "$sourcefolder\Completed\ADMTUserInclude.csv" $ANewName -force
rename-item "$sourcefolder\Completed\UserIncludes.csv" $UNewName -force
}
else {
remove-item "$sourcefolder\completed\$anewname"
remove-item "$sourcefolder\completed\$Unewname"
rename-item "$sourceFolder\Completed\ADMTUserInclude.csv" $ANewName -force
rename-item "$sourcefolder\Completed\UserIncludes.csv" $UNewName -force

}

pause
}

"Q" { ## quit and clean up our sessions if we missed any
get-pssession|remove-pssession
}
default {
Clear-Host;
Write-Host "Invalid input. Please enter a valid option. Press any key to continue.";
Pause
}
}

} until ($input.ToUpper() -eq "Q");
get-pssession|remove-pssession
Clear-Host;

Active Directory Migrations: Final Thoughts

I’ve now given you all my scripts I used for my AD migrations. They represent a huge amount of work on my part for writing, testing, compiling and refining them. Please use them wisely and if they help you out feel free to write a comment and let me know. I like to know I’m not just writing for myself.

Also keep in mind that you are not done. Not remotely. Now you have to go back and fix everything else you didn’t touch: DNS zones, DHCP, file share permissions, file servers, applications servers, applications, GPO’s, contacts, Sharepoint, etc, etc. Try to think of everything a user does on a daily basis and figure out if and how it needs to be migrated. You probably band-aided everything to get it working in the interim, but you still need to go back and FIX it.

To that end, what about your new hires? Hopefully you enfolded them in the migration process or at the end you’ll find out you have another 20-100 people who still need to be migrated. All because you didn’t define that process in the beginning. I know, because we ran out of time to do it on ours and had to do them all over again.

What about your remote users? Are you making them come into the office, mail their equipment in and be offline for days, or what? We did some hodge-podge process of creating a new local user account on remote PC’s and handholding them thru logging in with that, VPN in, and then migrate their computer and have them do it all over again so we could get the IP and finish the process. By the end it worked great, but 1 person could really only handle a couple of these remote users at a time.

And what are you going to do until all of the above is done? Do new hires need to be onboarded into their legacy domain or can they go directly into the new domain? Likely you’ve still got applications tied to the old domain that require sidHistory, group access or whatever, so your new users will need to come into the old and then be migrated into the new before they even start. Hopefully your onboarding process has that flexibility. (I’ll cover that powershell script in another post.)

Hopefully I’ve been of some help to you.

Active Directory Migrations: Mailbox Moves 2.0

If you’ve been following along with the process you’ll know I already covered mailbox moves. So you’re probably wondering what this post is about.

“Well, Jason,” you’re probably saying, “your process is nice enough and really saved me from having to write a lot of code, but what do I do for this users with huge mailboxes? Like, I have a few execs with 10GB mailboxes. I know I was never supposed to allow that, but, you know, they’re execs. And I have a tiny migration window.”

I’m glad you asked.

I found a nifty little switch on the mailbox move called “suspendwhenreadytocomplete”. Essentially what it does is kick off a mailbox move of a user into a temporary staging area (i.e you still have mailflow” and then when it gets to 95% it just stops. You could conceivably leave it there forever. Or days. Either one. The idea here is that that last 5% is the remaining mail items (and the changes) and then it flips the switch from MEU to mailbox and puts the mail attributes on the account in the target domain. Since I saw an average of about 20 minutes per 1GB of a mailbox during moves, I could work backward to see how much time it would take to move that mailbox and was able to kick it off early.

A couple huge caveats with this:

1. Only works from Exchange 2007 or 2010 to Exchange 2010.
2. You canNOT have Unified Messaging turned on for the user in the source domain when you start. Same as for a mailbox move. What this means is that the users won’t have voicemail until they’re actually migrated. There are ways around this using alternate names on your UM policy, but that didn’t work for us based on how we were changing things up.

Here’s the script. This helped me tremendously for my migrations:


##since this is a oneoff, specify the email address we're doing this to.
Param(
 [string]$smtp
)
##call include file

. .\params.ps1

##Create Sessions
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials
##import the session
import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null
## Do a move request for each mailbox
##note the last option -suspendwhenreadytocomplete

New-MoveRequest -Identity $smtp -domaincontroller $TargetDC -RemoteLegacy -RemoteGlobalCatalog $SourceDC -RemoteCredential $RemoteCredentials -TargetDeliveryDomain $TargetDeliveryDomain -baditemlimit 50 -suspendwhenreadytocomplete

##clean uup
remove-pssession $ExchSession

That’s it. Then when you’re ready to go on with your migration just go into the Exchange console to the move requests section and right-click and select “Complete Move Request”

Active Directory Migrations: Unified Messaging

This next one is pretty straightforward. We’re just creating a remote session to Exchange and then enabling Unified Messaging with the appropriate settings. Again, this is where our import file is super important as it has to have all the relevant information in it.

##call include file
. .\params.ps1
##Create our Exchange session. Exchange can be finicky about this.
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials

$import=import-csv $importfile

## enable UM
## Import the sessions and then go thru the import file
## Check if the user has an extension, if so they need to be enabled
import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null
foreach ($item in $Import){
  if ($item.extensions){
    enable-ummailbox -identity $item.displayname -extensions $item.extensions -ummailboxpolicy $item.umpolicy -sipresourceidentifier $item.smtp
write-host "Enabling UM for: " $item.displayname -foregroundcolor yellow
## Seems like a great time to update all of our address lists
get-addresslist|update-addresslist

##clean up after ourselves
remove-pssession $Exchsession

Active Directory Migrations: Setting user attributes

In the ongoing series of AD Migrations….

These next couple are very specific to our environment but I’m putting them out here for posterity. Both use the Quest AD Powershell tools, which are very powerful tools when it comes to object manipulation in AD. I suggest you go download and install them immediately – Quest

This first one sets an extended attribute on the user in the source domain so that we know they’ve been migrated. It’s more for a key for reports and stuff, but can be good info to have.

The second combines a couple of things. The first thing it does is set the displayname and UPN for the migrated user to go with our new standards (oh, did I mention we’re changing the UPN but leaving the SAM alone and changing the displayname?)

It also turns on ActiveSync for the users if they need it. Made the most sense for our scripts to put it here.

AttribMig.ps1:


##filename attribmig.ps1
## Set transcript output
$Tranoutput="d:\migration\Outputs\" + $date + "SourceSIP.txt"
start-transcript -path $Tranoutput -append

##call include file
. .\params.ps1

## import our import file
$import=import-csv $importfile

##Set migrated attribute in source
## We're just setting an extended attribute using QAD and piping that out to the screen.

ForEach ($item in $import){
 write-host "Attribute being set for " $item.sourcename -foregroundcolor yellow
 set-qaduser -service $SourceDC -identity $item.sourcename -objectAttributes @{"extensionattribute4"="MigratedToCorp"}
}
stop-transcript

DisplayName.ps1


## Set our transcript and output file
$Tranoutput="d:\migration\Outputs\" + $date + "UPN.txt"
start-transcript -path $Tranoutput -append

##call include file
. .\params.ps1

##Create Sessions to Exchange 2010 in Target
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials

## Import our file and session

$import=import-csv $importfile
import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null

##Perform set user to fix displayname and upn
## Set the displayname and UPN based off of input file

foreach ($item in $Import){
 $UPN=$item.newupn+"@csgicorp.com"
 $AS=$item.ActiveSync.ToUpper()
 write-host "Setting UPN and AS for " $item.smtp -foregroundcolor yellow
 set-user -identity $item.smtp -displayname $item.displayname -userprincipalname $UPN

## Check if user is supposed to have ActiveSync Enabled and turn it on if they do

if ($AS -eq "YES"){set-casmailbox -identity $item.smtp -activesyncenabled $true}

}

## Clean up after ourselves and stop transcript
remove-pssession $ExchSession
stop-transcript

Active Directory Migrations: User ADMT and Mailbox Move

I’m not going to go thru the screenshots of how to ADMT a user over. That’s documented well enough elsewhere (i.e. HERE).

All I’ll really say about that is that you NEVER want to migrate Exchange attributes of a user. Never, ever, ever. The process for migrating a user and a mailbox is simple enough:

  • Run prepare-moverequest.ps1 for each mailbox that needs to be created. It creates an MEU (mail enabled user) on the target side with all the exchange attributes you need. Essentially a fancy contact
  • ADMT the user (see above). Exclude: homeMDB, homeMTA, mailnickname, all the msExch*, all the msRTCSIP, proxyaddresses, targetaddress
  • Perform a move mailbox (see below). The move mailbox converts the source account into a MEU on the source domain. This is needed for mailflow.

## Get date, set our transcript file, etc.

$date=get-date -format "yyyyMMdd"
$Tranoutput="d:\migration\Outputs\" + $date + "Mailboxmove.txt"
start-transcript -path $Tranoutput -append

##call include file
## This ensures that the variables are loaded, altho if you followed the previous article they already should be
. .\params.ps1

## Create Remote Powershell session to the Exchange 2010 server
## Greate for making sure all your command can be run from one place
$ExchSession=New-PSSession -ConfigurationName Microsoft.Exchange -connectionuri $ExchURI -credential $LocalCredentials
import-pssession $ExchSession|out-null
## Import the include file
$import=import-csv $ImportFile
## Do a move request for each mailbox using all of our variables
## Targetdeliverydomain is important to ensure mailflow. It should be set to a 3rd SMTP domain that is only being used by the 2010 environment
## This then gets set on the MEU in the source side

foreach ($item in $import){
 New-MoveRequest -Identity $item.smtp -domaincontroller $TargetDC -RemoteLegacy -RemoteGlobalCatalog $SourceDC -RemoteCredential $RemoteCredentials -TargetDeliveryDomain $TargetDeliveryDomain -baditemlimit 50
}
## clean up after yourself and close your remote powershell session
remove-pssession $ExchSession

stop-transcript

The move mailbox ends up being the easiest part of this whole process. You can run powershell commands to check the status of the move request or just go into the Exchange console and check it there.

Powershell: using datetime

So let’s assume that in previous code I’ve pulled a list of all users and groups and now want to run some code daily to get new users and groups. You don’t want to pull the whole list every day, as this would get a little unwieldy. But if you just want to know what in AD has changed in the past day or past week or whatever, this is a handy snippet of code that can get you there.

Datetime is always a little tricky to manipulate, but it’s very powerful if you want to do comparisons.


$dayEnd = [datetime]::Today
$dayStart = $dayEnd.AddDays(-1)
$results=@()
foreach ($item in $(get-distributiongroup -resultsize unlimited|where-object {$_.whencreated -ge $daystart -and $_.whencreated -lt $dayend})){$results+=$item.name}

  • $dayEnd = [datetime]::Today <== Here I’m just creating a new variable and want to set it to datetime. But specifying [datetime]::Today I’m telling it just give me monthy, day and year, so it would set the variable to 02262013 00:00:00, for example. Handy since I don’t want it to give a time of NOW.
  • $dayStart = $dayEnd.Adddays(-1) <== So take the previous variable and subtract 1 day from it (i.e. if $dayEnd was 02262013 00:00:00, $dayStart would be 02252013 00:00:00). If you wanted it to add 3 days to the starting variable you’d just do .Adddays(3). A minus sign is a negative here, obviously. So if you wanted the last week you’d do .Adddays (-7).  If you didn’t care about comparing the 2 dates you could also set the initial variable to $day=[datetime]::Today.AddDays(-7) to set $day to a week ago
  • $results=@() <== Create and set an array into a variable
  • get-distributiongroup -resultsize unlimited|where-object {$_.whencreated -ge $daystart -and $_.whencreated -lt $dayend} <== I tried doing a -filter, but that didn’t work correctly, so doing a  pipe into a where clause and key off of whencreated and greater than or equal to the $daystart and less than the $dayend.